Male treatment

Male Infertility

  • Varicocele: A varicocele is an enlargement of the veins within the loose bag of skin that holds your testicles (scrotum). It is similar to a varicose vein you might see in your arms or legs. It leads to poor sperm quality and reduced production thus resulting in infertility.
  • Infection: Some infections can hinder sperm production or sperm health or cause scarring that blocks the passage of sperm. These can be inflammation of the epididymis (epididymitis) or testicles (orchitis) or sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhoea, HIV, etc.
  • Ejaculation disorders: Ejaculation disorders could be premature ejaculation, anejaculation (failure to ejaculate), and retrograde ejaculation which occurs when semen enters the bladder during orgasm instead of coming out the tip of the penis
  • Antibodies that attack sperm: Anti-sperm antibodies are immune cells that mistake sperm to be as harmful invaders and try to eliminate them. There are 3 main types of sperm antibodies: Immunoglobulin G(IgG), Immunoglobulin A(IgA) and Immunoglobulin M (IgM).
  • Tumours: Cancerous growth and non-malignant tumours may affect male fertility. These can prevent the release of hormones related to reproduction from pituitary gland. Moreover, surgery, radiation, chemotherapy treatment for treating tumours can also lead to male infertility.
  • Undescended testicles: During development of the foetus, one or both testicles fail to descend from the abdomen into the sac that normally contains them. Infertility is more likely in men who have this condition.
  • Hormone imbalances: Infertility can result from testicle disorders or due to hormone imbalances in the pituitary, hypothalamus, thyroid and adrenal glands. Low testosterone and other hormonal difficulties can also cause infertility.
  • Defects of tubules that transport sperm: There are different tubes which carry sperm. These can be blocked due to different reasons such as infections, trauma, or abnormal development such as cystic fibrosis or other inherited conditions.
  • Chromosomal Defects: There are various hereditary disorders which could result in infertility. One such example is Klinefelter’s Syndrome in which a male is born with two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome instead of one X and one Y chromosome. This impacts the normal development of male reproductive organs.
  • Problems with sexual intercourse: These can consist of trouble retaining erection (erectile dysfunction), premature ejaculation, painful intercourse, anatomical abnormalities such as having a urethral opening beneath penis (hypospadias), or psychological or relationship problems that interfere with sex.
  • Medications: Some medications such as testosterone replacement therapy, long-term anabolic steroid use, cancer treatments (chemotherapy), certain antifungal medicines, ulcer drugs and a few other medications can weaken sperm production and decrease fertility in males.
  • Prior surgeries: Certain surgeries may prevent sperm from being present in your ejaculate, including vasectomy, inguinal hernia repairs, scrotal or testicular surgeries, prostate surgeries, and large abdominal surgeries performed for testicular and rectal cancers, and others. Most of the time, surgery can be performed to reverse these blockages or retrieve sperm directly from epididymis and testicles.
  • Coealic surgeries: It is a digestive disorder caused by sensitivity to gluten. It can cause male infertility. Fertility can be improved by adopting a gluten-free diet.